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China Rockwell Hardness Tester

They had a very small amount of time to complete the development so that the code can go into production. Top Down Forecasting: Top Down forecasting creates sales potential estimates and allows for development of sales forecasts based on this information. However she argued that knowledge has an independent effect on information processing, as involvement could not explain the information processing pattern of results obtained for experts. Hence, she concluded consumer knowledge has an effect on evaluation processes independent of interest or involvement in the product category. Two more recent studies have used surrogate terms for knowledge or familiarity as the independent variable in the study of decision processes. This preliminary study suggests that expertise and product use may not be interchangeable. There may be a class of products where involvement and product use are correlated and another set of products where involvement and product use are not correlated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate there may be a difference between product use and true knowledge. Don’t pick the results from the data you like and ignore the bad yet true results that may come up during your research. This contrary finding may well be due to the different surrogate measures of the knowledge/familiarity construct rather than any true difference.

1 not significant. As this study uses relatively simple measures and analyses, more sophisticated studies should be carried out to substantiate these results. To investigate the relationships among involvement, expertise and product use, the following preliminary study was designed. In addition to product use or knowledge, a third construct, namely, involvement, was suspected of contributing to obtained results in information search studies. Granted, product use and knowledge may be related, however experimentally each variable may have a different impact on the consumers’ information search strategies. For future studies, perhaps one might employ an index of product use made up of two variables. The evidence presented here of substantial correlations validates, in part, the notion that sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a consumer trait and is not unique to specific product categories. On the other hand, toilet paper, paper towels and kleenex are all paper products and designed for a specific use.

Subjects were administered a valid scale of product involvement and product use questions over the various products during class time. The relationship between product use and expertise was examined over wine and 35mm cameras for 28 of the same MBA students. Using the same data and classification scheme, Park and Lessig (1981) investigated the impact of familiarity on confidence in decision, decision time, satisfaction and use of various attributes. Usable prior knowledge was measured by Punj and Staelin (1983) by a seven point previous satisfaction scale; time since last purchase; total purchases; and a self-report measure of the decision maker’s opinion on the purchase. However, involvement may motivate one to gather information and in time become increasingly knowledgeable about the product. For frequently purchased packaged goods, depth would be number of occasions per time period the product was purchased. Even if you have the electronics product design expertise available, there are a number of tasks that you must complete and issues that you must resolve before you have an actual product design that can be produced, marketed, and sold. They define familiarity as a latent construct and manipulate or measure it as a function of number of previous exposures (Simon and Feignbaum 1979). Experimentally, familiar stimuli are distinguished from meaningful stimuli.

Therefore, expertise may not be necessarily related to involvement because involvement is a motivational construct whereas expertise is a sustaining construct representing knowledge structure. Therefore measuring familiarity as a combination of product use and subjective knowledge structure may not be as insightful as measuring product use and objective knowledge structure. This suggestion for separating product use and objective knowledge structure in experimental studies seems in line with decision theorists approach to studying memory structures. This template helps you out by indicating the Postal Service rules about where your content can go and what space is reserved for postal use. Many people today prefer reading up reviews of a product before they try out the particular product themselves. The expectation was that people who use a product frequently should be more involved with that product than people who use that product infrequently. Furthermore, involvement and product use may be related while involvement and expertise may not necessarily be related.